13 Nov prairie vole monogamy hormones
0000000016 00000 n Neurosci. Both behaviors rely on an increase in vasopressin release and possibly increased sensitivity in the AVP V1a receptor, likely facilitated by mating. It is possibly that estrogen could have effects on different receptors or actions on other brain regions, for example playing a role in the regulation of the oxytocin receptor. Testosterone serves as a prohormone and can be converted locally to DHT. Impact Factor 2.416 | CiteScore 3More on impact ›, What’s Love Got to Do with it: The Evolution of Monogamy The broader use of the term social monogamy involved descriptions of animals cohabitating in male-female pairs, remaining together after mating, and jointly defending resources. J. Neuroendocrinol. In the absence of DHT, masculinization of the genitalia is disrupted (Okeigwe and Kuohung, 2014). DeVries, A. C., Devries, M. B., Taymans, S. E., and Carter, C. S. (1996). Regul. Horm. Dev. In parallel studies, meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), often studied in the same fields, did not show these traits (Carter and Getz, 1993). Exploration in a dispersal task: effects of early experience and correlation with other behaviors in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Consequently, Weckerly (1998) concluded that mating systems do affect the extent of sexual dimorphism, with sexual dimorphism being reduced in long-term pair bonding. Hormonal correlates of paternal responsiveness in new and expectant fathers. The neurobiology of human attachments. Getz, L. L., and Carter, C. S. (1980). Resident males that are selectively social with a long-term partner have higher oxytocin receptor density in this region compared to males adopting a non-monogamous social strategy (Ophir et al., 2012). Cooperative breeding and monogamy in prairie voles: influence of the sire and geographical variation. Rev. Zool.  Vasopressin is responsible for forming attachment between male and female prairie voles. Nature 365, 545–548. 82 43 Patterns of brain vasopressin receptor distribution associated with social organization in microtine rodents. The addition of DNA fingerprints increased the body of evidence indicating that social and sexual monogamy are not always coherent. Not just skin deep: Neurons detect pleasurable touch, The amygdala: a full brain integrator in the face of fear. Behav. Booms and crashes in populations were not easily explained by environmental factors such as food, water, climate or predation. Am. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are described here as a model system in which it is possible to examine, within the context of natural history, the proximate processes regulating the social and reproductive behaviors that characterize a monogamous social system. Ecol. Neural Biol. Neurosci. Anti-Müllerian hormone is also produced, causing the Müllerian ducts to degenerate. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2016.11.007, Ferris, C. F., Albers, H. E., Wesolowski, S. M., Goldman, B. D., and Luman, S. E. (1984). J. Mammal. Arginine vasopressin and the vasopressin receptor (AVP V1a) are closely related to the ancestral molecule, vasotocin, and are considered more primitive than oxytocin. 49, 335–342. Further adding to these variations, experiences across the life cycle serve to change and refine these systems. In other cases, such as the regulation by mating of male aggression, steroids might be replaced by direct effects of peptide hormones such as vasopressin (Winslow et al., 1993).  Helping a female in young rearing could potentially jeopardize a male's fitness and result in the loss of mating opportunities. Sci. 0000001639 00000 n We strive to make neuroscience accessible to anyone interested in learning about the brain. 0000009341 00000 n Thus, if mutations or epigenetic silencing occurs in the X chromosome in areas relevant to the expression of the AR gene, this could reduce AR production. doi: 10.1037/0735-7036.117.3.283, Pedersen, C. A. During this time Geert De Vries and his colleagues also found that central vasopressin changed following mating in male prairie voles (Bamshad et al., 1994). doi: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2016.03.003, Bamshad, M., Novak, M. A., and Devries, G. J. Facilitation of affiliation and pair-bond formation by vasopressin receptor gene transfer into the ventral forebrain of a monogamous vole. Endocrinol. (2001). But we won’t be Cupid’s only targets; prairie voles will be falling in love, too! Species 355, 1–9. The sources of this variation remain to be fully identified, but as shown in the examples below, can be regulated by genetics, epigenetics, and experience across the life span (Carter et al., 2009; Perkeybile and Bales, 2017; Perkeybile et al., 2018). There are several striking differences in the patterns of peptide receptors between socially monogamous and non-monogamous species. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2826.1991.tb00258.x, Witt, D. M., Carter, C. S., and Walton, D. M. (1990). Brain Res. B Biol. Psychoneuroendocrinology 38, 306–309. This suggests that, similar to intraspecies variation in behavior, the differences in sociality between prairie voles and their non-monogamous counterparts, including both meadow and montane voles, arise due to differences in the density of oxytocin receptors in the nucleus accumbens, among other regions. This pathway was originally identified in humans by a genetic failure of the AR to bind androgens, known as androgen-insensitivity syndrome (AIS). 80, 951–955. Other studies have revealed that early life manipulations of the oxytocin system alter several traits of monogamy, facilitating pair bonding and alloparental behavior in males, with little effect in females (Carter et al., 2009). Monogamy occurs when males are unable to monopolize more than one female, Monogamy should be more likely if female under-dispersion occurs, Female home range is larger for monogamous species, When females are solitary and occupy large ranges. While some of these hypotheses apply to a majority of monogamous species, other apply to a very limited number of them. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2013.05.006, Gottlieb, B., Beitel, L. K., Nadarajah, A., Paliouras, M., and Trifiro, M. (2012). In the case of alloparenting, females with lower levels of oxytocin receptor density in the nucleus accumbens were less likely to exhibit alloparenting and more likely to be infanticidal (Olazabal and Young, 2006a,b). Table 3. (2016). doi: 10.1016/0018-506X(92)90004-F, Williams, J. R., Insel, T. R., Harbaugh, C. R., and Carter, C. S. (1994). Paternal or alloparental care is sometimes, but not always, observed (Kleiman, 1977; Komers and Brotherton, 1997). Behav. “Paternal Behavior and aggression: Endocrine mechanisms and nongenomic transmission of behavior,” in Advances in the Study of Behavior, Vol 32, eds P. J. Horm. Males simultaneously engage in selective and enduring affiliative behavior with their female partner, while also engaging in selective and enduring aggressive behavior toward non-partners. (B) In a social monogamy behavioral phenotype, we hypothesize that changes in the response to androgens produced by the testes during prenatal development may lead to changes in the masculinization of the external genitalia in XY genotype individuals. What's in a name? 84, 56–62. In addition, human males who have lower levels of testosterone, whether fathers or non-fathers, respond more to the sound of infant cries than do males with higher testosterone levels (Fleming et al., 2002). For this reason, mammals such as dwarf mongooses (, Localization of resources: in some species, such as, scarce resources available on any given territory so that two or more individuals are needed in order to defend it, physical environment conditions are so unfavorable that multiple individuals are needed to cope with it. The same effect on infanticide is seen in male mice after adult castration (Svare and Mann, 1981). Pair bonds can be formed even without mating, but mating facilitates and speeds up the process. In typical females anti-Müllerian hormone is also not produced, allowing the Müllerian ducts to develop into feminized internal genitalia. Psychol. doi: 10.1016/0163-1047(91)80125-X, Fleming, A. S., Corter, C., Stallings, J., and Steiner, M. (2002). 6:30. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2018.00030, Komers, P. E., and Brotherton, P. N. M. (1997). 0000023469 00000 n These animals may be driven by hormones and impulses much like our own, Carter explains. A related pattern of changes in vasopressin correlates with paternal behavior within this species. (1994). Emerging from those studies was evidence that prairie voles were sharing nests in long term pairs, generally remaining together for life. Neuroendocrinol. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5039-08.2009, Schum, J. E., and Wynne-Edwards, K. E. (2005). Canad. Social monogamy in nonhuman primates: phylogeny, phenotype, and physiology.
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